victory in the Chinese Civil War led to the expulsion of all foreign missionaries. During the period of the Seven Ecumenical Councils, five primary sees emerged, an arrangement formalised in the mid-6th century by Emperor Justinian I as the pentarchy of Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem and Alexandria. Vigilantly warding off any errors that threaten their flock. The Reformation of the 16th century resulted in Protestants breaking away. In the middle of the third century. 161 The Catholic Church recognises as valid baptisms conferred even by people who are not Catholics or Christians, provided that they intend to baptise to do what the Church does when she baptises and that they use the Trinitarian baptismal formula. Archived from the original on 11 February 2012. The Christians' refusal to join pagan celebrations meant they were unable to participate in much of public life, which caused non-Christiansincluding government authoritiesto fear that the Christians were angering the gods and thereby threatening the peace and prosperity of the Empire. 18 a b "Presentation of the Pontifical Yearbook 2019 and the Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2017". 393 In 2014, the Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops addressed the church's ministry towards families and marriages and to Catholics in "irregular" relationships, such as those who divorced and remarried outside of the church without a declaration of nullity. 223 The pope expressed concern that the warming of the planet is a symptom of a greater problem: the developed world's indifference to the destruction of the planet as humans pursue short-term economic gains. His ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the " Holy See " ( Sancta Sedes in Latin or the " Apostolic See " (meaning the see of the apostle Peter). "Country Profile: Vatican City State/Holy See". Joseph Foundation newsletter, Vol. Retrieved m Edictum de fide catholica "Eastern Orthodoxy", Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved 1 February 2017. 110 AD "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be, even as where Jesus may be, there is the universal katholike Church." 20 Examples uses of "Roman Catholic" by the Holy See: the encyclicals Divini Illius Magistri. 147 In addition, the Canon Laws for both the Latin Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches govern who may licitly celebrate certain sacraments, as well as strict rules about who may receive the sacraments.